It provides REPL (Read-Eval-Print-Loop) instructions that extend standard SQL’s instruction set for Data Manipulation and Data Definition instructions, including SQL Server-specific settings, security and database statistics management. The buffer cache is a collection of all buffered pages that are 8 KB in size.
Microsoft SQL Server 2012
Analysis Services uses the XML for Analysis protocol as its underlying communication protocol. Access to the cube data is possible using MDX or LINQ queries. Data mining-specific functionality can be accessed via the DMX query languages. Analysis Services include various algorithms such as clustering algorithm and Naive Bayes algorithm, decision trees, Naive Bayes algorithm, and sequence clustering algorithm. These can be used in data mining. The stored procedures are parameterized QTL queries that are stored on the server.
Organizations could have unlimited virtual machine capabilities by either purchasing the Enterprise edition SQL Server 2008 R2 without Software Assurance or the Datacenter edition. DeGroot stated that the latter option increased SQL Server 2008 R2 licensing costs by about $110,000 compared to SQL Server 2008. The Object Explorer is a key feature of SQL Server Management Studio. It allows users to browse, select and then act on any object within the server. You can use it to visualize and analyze queries plans, optimize database performance, and do many other things. SQL Server Management Studio is also used to create new databases, modify existing schemas by adding or changing tables or indexes and analyze performance. The query windows provide a GUI-based interface for the writing and execution of queries.
A table may have a clustered index that allows fast retrieval of rows. The rows are stored in order according to their index values. A B-tree provides the index. The data is stored in the leaf node, with other nodes storing index values for leaf data. The index keys are used to sort the rows if the index is not clustered. An unordered heap structure is used to store a table that does not have a clustered Index.
SQL Server 2012 EE/CAL supports only 20 physical cores per physical machine and 20 virtual logical processors per virtual machine. SQL Server 2012 EE – Per Core does NOT have this limitation. It would be able to support the maximum operating system limit. Microsoft offers licensing programs for customers with fewer than five users. These programs help to reduce overhead and software management expenses, as well as allowing product licensing on an annual basis at significant discounts. Customers can choose from a variety of licensing options to find the best fit for their operational and management needs.
“If you don’t license per CAL, you can skip BI and choose Enterprise for BI since it offers a superset of all of the BI server features. Although the hierarchy of features is clear — Standard to Enterprise to BI to Enterprise — it’s not as clear as the licensing hierarchy. DeGroot stated that the new pricing has brought the price of a server license for unlimited SQL servers back to the level it was before the Datacenter edition increased the price. The per-server license for BI Server is the same as that for SQL Server 2008 Enterprise…though it isn’t an apples-to apple comparison due to the differences in SKU features. Horwitz expressed his opinions in an email, in which he outlined the changes in bullet points. T-SQL (Transact SQLL) is Microsoft’s proprietary procedural language extension to SQL Server.
Since SQL Server 2005, SQL Server Management Studio has replaced Enterprise Manager as the primary interface to manage Microsoft SQL Server. SQL Server Express Edition also has a version of SQL Server Management Studio, which is called SQL Server Management Studio Express. Microsoft Visual Studio supports data programming with Microsoft SQL Server. It can be used for writing and debugging code that will be executed by SQL CLR. You can also use the data designer to create, view and edit database schemas graphically. SQL Server Integration Services offers ETL capabilities for SQL Server to support data import, integration, and data warehousing. Service Broker allows cross-instance applications to communicate over TCP/IP, allowing the components to be synchronized via an exchange of messages.
The Service Broker is an integral part of the SQL Server engine and provides reliable messaging and message queueing platforms for SQL Server applications. These aren’t essential to the operation of the database system but they offer value-added services that complement the core database management system.
Core-based licensing will make both the Standard Edition and Enterprise Editions of SQL Server 2012 available. Microsoft advises that IT professionals should use the Microsoft Assessment and Planning Toolkit to inventory their computing environments after the term of their agreement. This tool can be used to record how many processors are covered by Software Assurance. The product can only be used with x64 processors from SQL Server 2016. SQL Server 2005 was released in 2005. It completes the conversion of the Sybase code to Microsoft code. SQL Server 7.0 was released in 1998. This marks the conversion of the source codes from C to C++.
A full-text search index can also be created for any column that contains text data based on characters. It can also be done with the SQL LIKE operator. However, SQL Server Full-Text Search is more efficient. Full allows for an inexact match of the source string. This is indicated by a rank value that can range between 0 and 1000. A higher rank indicates a more precise match. It allows for linguistic matching (“inflectional searching”), which means that any linguistic variants of a word can also be a match. It also supports proximity searches. This means that if words are not in the same sequence as they are listed in the query, but are close to each other, they will be considered matches. T-SQL provides special operators that allow you to access FTS capabilities. You can apply locks at different levels of granularity: an entire tables, pages, and even per row on tables.
SQL Server provides an optimistic concurrency management mechanism that is similar to multi-version concurrency controls found in other databases. This mechanism allows for a new row to be created when the row is updated. It does not overwrite the row. The old and new versions of the row can be stored and maintained. However, the older versions are moved from the database to Tempdb. Any other requests that are not related to an update of a row are not blocked but executed on the older version.
SQL Server databases can hold up to 231 objects. They can also span multiple OS-level files, with a maximum file size limit of 260 bytes. Data in the database is stored in primary data files that have an extension. MDF. Secondary data files are identified by a.ndf extension and allow data from a single database to spread across multiple files or, optionally, across multiple file systems. Standard provides “basic reporting, analytics and database capabilities.” Standard includes all the capabilities of BI, Power View (“Crescent”) reporting and analytics, as well as data-quality and master-data services. Enterprise features all of the Standard and BI features. It also includes the “AlwaysOn”, high-availability ColumnStore data warehousing functionality, and “Maximum Virtualization”. Enterprise can support 20 cores, while Standard and BI support 16 cores.
Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Enterprise System Requirements
- 32-bit systems
- Computer with Intel or compatible 1GHz or faster processor (2 GHz or faster is recommended.)
- 64-bit systems
- 1.4 GHz or faster processor
- Minimum of 512 MB of RAM (2 GB or more is recommended.)
- 2.2 GB of available hard disk space